Music is governed by harmony, whereas visual art can be appreciated with a much looser application of visual stimuli.
On the chromatic scale, doubling the frequency of a pitch increments by one octave. For example, note A4 is 440 Hz, so A5 is 880 Hz.
Since sound requires such precision to be appreciated as music, we can apply this doubling rule to color to achieve a harmonic conversion. The spreadsheet below shows this mapping.
I still have a lot of work to do. For example, color frequencies increase well beyond the range of the basic colors. I'm hoping this can equate to light or dark versions.